Speech is the delivery of ideas, thoughts or information and the purpose of the speaker to others (audience) by way of oral. Speech also can be interpreted as the art of persuasion, that is as art persuade / influ
ence. Speech has something to do with rhetoric (rhetorica), that is, the art of using language effectively. Speech is not a simple job because in addressing some important elements such as: speaker, listener, purpose and content of speech, preparation, technique and ethics in speech.
I. Purpose of Speech
Among the purposes of the speech are: (a) informative, aiming at giving a report / knowledge or something of interest to the listener; (B) persuasive and instructive, contains the attempt to encourage
, convince and invite the audience to do something; (C) educative, striving to emphasize on aspects of education, for example about the importance of healthy living, family planning, living in harmony among people bergama and others; (D) entertain, aims to provide refresher to the more relaxed audience.
There are four general speech techniques, namely: (a) Methods of Script, ie speeches used for official speech and recited directly. The way it is done so that no mistake, because every word spoken in the official situation, will be disseminated and made a figure by the public and dikutuip by the mass media; (B) The Method of Memorization, ie, prepare
d manuscripts not for reading, but for memorization; (C) Spontaneity method, ie speech method that is not done preparation / preparation of written script first. Usually done only by people who will appear suddenly; (D) Method of Translation of the Framework. Technique of speech by describing the speech material that is patterned completely is a technique that is highly recommended in the speech. The purpose of the pattern is that the materi
al to be submitted must be prepared by a large line-grais contents by writing down the things that are considered most important to be conveyed.
III. Speech Material
Usually the material of speech, whether using a script or without a script has four parts, namely (a) Introduction, which serves to lead to the subject matter to be discussed and as an effort to prepare a mental audience. In this section the most important thing we try to generate and direct the attention of the audience on the subject matter to be discussed; (B) Content. In this section the subject is presented by first raising the background of the problem. The point of the discussion is expressed in such a way that
it seems clearly related to the interests of the audience. (C) Discussion. This section is a unity, which contains reasons that support the things mentioned in the content. In this section of content it usually contains various explanations, reasons, supporting evidence, illustrations, figures and comparisons, contrasts, charts, models, and relevant humor; (d) Conclusions. This is the final part of a speech, which is the conclusion of the whole previous description.
IV.Preparation Before Speech.
There are several preparations to be made before addressing: (a) Determining the Purpose of the Speech; (B) Selecting the Subject
of the Problem; (C) Knowing and Analyzing the audience and the atmosphere; (D) Collecting speech materials; (E) Prepare the Speech Material Framework; (f) Conduct Speech Exercises; (G) Eliminating Feelings “Fever” The stage is by: focusing the mind on yourself, confident (PD), assuming the audience does not know about what we are talking about, deepening the material well, preparing the concept of speech a few days earlier, Repeat the speech material, prepare yourself a few hours before appearing and do not rush, as well as adequate rest. The last is certainly to pray.
V. When Speech
(1) Opening. The opening of the speech is an important part and plays a role for the speaker, because this section can give the fi
rst impression to the audience. There are several ways a speaker can use to open his speech: (a) by introducing himself; Or (b) Opening the speech with humor; Or (d) open the speech with a general introduction.
(2) The Core of Speech. After completing the opening with one of the above, then proceed with the main problem.
(3) Closing Speech can be done by: (a) Making a summary or conclusion; Or (b) restate the principles contained in the speech; Or (c) tell an interesting short story; Or (d) to quote the words of pearls, phrases, or some verses of rhymes; Or (e) invites or appeals and presents a compliment to the hearers
VI.Etika In Speech
1 The ethics of public speaking include: (a) Wearing clothing appropriate to the meeting, neat, clean and polite; (B) Shown modestly, politely and humbly; (C) insert some fresh humor in speech; (D) Use polite, subtle, and simple words, (e) As a closing reminder do not forget to say sorry if there are less favorable words and others.
2. Ethics of speech in front of officials: (a) Eliminates low self-esteem; (B) Do not appear to be patronizing, knowing attitude and others; (C) Do not over-pay the audience.
3. Speech before the Religious Leaders: (a) Do not expose words that may offend religious people; (B) Do not degrade or praise certain religions, (c) Increase religious terms
4. Ethics Speaking in front of women. When a speaker is a man, be careful not to offend the dignity of women; Using appropriate terms like mothers or sisters; Avoid harsh words, indecent and impolite;
5. Ethics Speech in front of Youth / Student. Speeches should give priority to the reasoning with the world of young people; Do not give out opposing words; Do not criticize and blame young people
6. Ethics Speaking in front of village communities. Do not lie; Use polite and simple words, when to insert some terms in the language of the place.
VII.Some important things related to the speech. What needs attention are: (a) Speech Position. A speaker should be seen as far as possible by all audiences. If you can not sit, try to stand up, so that all audience can look at the face and appearance of the speaker; (B) Arranging Voice In Speech. Try to make the sound clearly, firmly and loudly and adjust to the meeting room, whether it is a small space or a large and large hall room; (C) Volume, Intonation and Pronunciation. At the time of speech, effort regulates: volume, intonation, and pronunciation; (D) Insert a polite, fresh and relevant humor; (E) Body movements, such as hands, palms, fingers, head, facial features, etc. also support the attraction in speech, but not too much, and should be in accordance with what is being discussed; (F) The use of microphones. If there is a microphone, use it as well as possible, and do not stick to the mouth, but rather away from the mouth when speaking for good voice; And (g) When there are slides (OHP and LCD), props, whiteboard, very effective to support the activity during the speech.
When we read a book or listen to a lecture on speech techniques, it seems very simple. However, when we want to practice it, we will encounter various obstacles. Among them lack of control of the material, lack of mastery of the masses, not used to standing in front of the crowd, how to set the systematics of speech, set the sound, and others. All of these requirements will make the atmosphere complicated. Most importantly we learn from the simple and small sauces. Everyone has a speech, both as speakers and give a speech, we should consider and try to assess the strengths and weaknesses. The advantages we take as an example, while the weakness we ignore.
Good Luck !